‘Fair and Equitable Treatment in International Trade and Investment Law:       1918 – 1956’ (Ph.D. Thesis 2017, passed without revision) 92,000 words.

This thesis traces the historical development of the ‘fair and equitable treatment’ concept in international trade law, first, following its appearance after World War I as a principle for inter-State trade relations,, and then, after World War II, its fertilization into international investment law and policy. following World War II. The thesis is based on extensive research into archived primary materials from 1918 to 1956.


Resolving Challenges to Historical Research: Developing a Project to Define Fair and Equitable Treatment’ in Rainer Hofmann, Stephan W. Schill, Christian J. Tams, eds., Investment Law & History (Elgar 2018) 13,000 words.

‘The Ancestry of “Equitable Treatment” in Trade: Lessons from the League of Nations during the Inter-War Period’ (2014) 15(1) Journal of World Trade & Investment 13-72 (double-blind peer reviewed).

Additional Publications

Online Commentary, ‘Inconsistencies in Investment Protection Standards’ OGEMID/Transnational Dispute Management (co-authored with Wolfgang Alschner), 2018.

Submission to Global Affairs Canada: Recommendations for Canada’s Foreign Investment Promotion and Protection Agreements (co-authored with Inu Manek), 2018.

‘Transparency as a First Step for Tomorrow’s Investment Treaties’, Reshaping Trade through Women’s Economic Empowerment: An Essay Series, The International Law Research Program at the Centre for International Governance Innovation, 2018, available online:

‘Federal Court of Canada hearing Canada's application to set aside Bilcon NAFTA award’, International Economic Law and Policy Blog (4 February 2018), available online:>

‘A NAFTA Proposal: Fix the FET Investment Protection Commitment’, International Economic Law and Policy Blog (27 September 2017), available online: <>

New Thinking on Investment Treaties by the Columbia Centre on Sustainable Investment and the Global Economic Governance Programme at Oxford University. ‘The Forgotten U.S. Purpose of FET Clauses in Post-War Treaties’, 2016,  available online: